Question 41: Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct answer to each of the questions. The reason women appear to be at risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease than men might be due to a number of genetic, anatomical and even social influences greater, researchers have suggested. Recent figures show about 65% of those with living with dementia in the UK are women, with a similar statistic seen in the US for Alzheimer’s disease, while dementia is the leading cause of death for women in England. Alzheimer’s disease is only one of the types of dementia, but the most common form. While one explanation is that dementia risk increases with age, and women have longer life expectancies than men, new research suggests there might be more to the matter, including that protein tangles found within neurons and linked to Alzheimer’s disease might spread differently in women’s brains than men’s. The study, presented at the Alzheimer’s Association International Conference in Los Angeles by researchers from Vanderbilt University and which has not yet been peer-reviewed, used scans from a method called positron emission tomography. That allowed them to look at the way clumps of a protein called tau were spread in the brains of 123 men and 178 women without cognitive problems, as well as 101 men and 60 women with mild cognitive problems – although not yet diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease. Cognitively normal older people often have small amounts of tau in certain areas of their brain. From the data the team could build maps showing which areas of the brain show similar signals related to tau in the scans, suggestive they are somehow connected. “Based on that we kind of try to reconstruct the pattern of spread,” Dr Sepideh Shokouhi, who is presenting the research, told the Guardian. “It is kind of like reconstructing a crime scene.” The team says the results suggest these maps look different in women and men, suggestive tau might be able to spread more rapidly across the female brain. Other research presented at the conference – and also not yet peer reviewed – added weight to the idea that there might be differences between men and women that affect dementia risk. Research by scientists at the University of Miami has revealed a handful of genes and genetic variants appear to be linked to Alzheimer’s disease in just one biological sex or the other. While the actual importance of these factors has yet to be unpicked, and the study only looked at white participants, the team says it underscores that there could be a genetic reason for differences in the risk of dementia in men and women, and the way it develop. The word “tangles” in paragraph 2 is closest in meaning to ___________.
The word “tangles” in paragraph 2 is closest in meaning to the word ____________.
A. mayhem, confusion
C. arrangement, arrangement
Synonyms: tangle (mayhem) = muddle
While one explanation is that dementia risk increases with age, and women have longer life expectancies than men, new research suggests there might be more to the matter, including that protein tangles found within neurons and linked to Alzheimer’s disease might spread differently in women’s brains than men’s.
(While another explanation is that the risk of dementia increases with age, and that women generally live longer than men, a new study suggests the problem may be more serious, including: The protein mess found in neurons and thought to be linked to Alzheimer’s disease may develop differently in the brains of women and men.)