Question 30: Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct answer to each of the questions: In 1988, Canadian athlete Ben Johnson set a new world record for the 100 meters sprint and set the Seoul Olympics alight. Just a few days later, he was stripped of his medal and banned from competing after having failed a drug test, highlighting what has since become an international problem – drug use in sport. Those involved in sports face enormous pressure to excel in competition, all the more so as their careers are relatively short. By the time most sportspeople are in their forties, they are already considered to be past their prime, and as a result they need to earn their money as quickly as possible. In such a high-pressure environment, success has to come quickly and increasingly often drugs are playing a prominent role. There are a number of specific effects that sportspeople are aiming to achieve by taking performance- enhancing drugs. Caffeine and cocaine are commonly used as stimulants, getting the body ready for the mass expenditure of energy required. In addition, there are those who are looking to build their body strength and turn to the use of anabolic steroids. Having worked so hard and needing to unwind, sportspeople may misuse other drugs as a relaxant in that it can help them cope with stress or boost their own confidence. Alcohol is commonly used for this purpose, but for sportspeople something more direct is often required, and this has led to an increase in the use of beta-blockers specifically to steady nerves. Increasingly accurate drug testing is leading companies and suppliers to ever-more creative ways of avoiding detection, and there are a range of banned substances that are still taken by sportspeople in order to disguise the use of other, more potent drugs. Diuretics is a good example of this: in addition to allowing the body to lose excess weight, they are used to hide other substances. Drugs or not, the working life of the average sportsperson is hard and often painful. Either through training or on the field, injuries are common and can lead to the use of narcotics simply to mask the pain. There are examples of champion motorcyclists taking local anaethetics to hide the pain of a crash that should have seen them taken straight to hospital, and though this is not directly banned, use is carefully monitored. Drug testing has since become an accepted feature of most major sporting events, and as soon as a new drug is detected and the user is banned from competitive sport, then a new drug is developed which evades detection. Inevitably substances, this makes testing for such banned even more stringent, and has in recent years highlighted a new and disturbing problem – the unreliability of drug tests. Recent allegations of drug use have seen sportspeople in court attempt to overthrow decisions against them, claiming anything that they were unaware they had taken on the banned list. A test recently carried out saw three non-athletes given dietary substances that were not on the banned list, and the two who didn’t take exercise tested negative. However, the third person, who exercised regularly, tested positive. This, of course, has left the testing of sportspeople in a very difficult position. Careers can be prematurely ended by false accusations of drug abuse, yet by not punishing those who test positive, the door would be open for anyone who wanted to take drugs. The issue is becoming increasingly clouded as different schools of opinion are making themselves heard. There are some that argue that if the substance is not directly dangerous to the user, then it should not be banned, claiming that it is just another part of training and can be compared to eating the correct diet. Ron Clarke, a supporter of limited drug use in sport, commented that some drugs should be accepted as ‘they just level the playing f
Key word: contravene, closest in meaning
Clue: Others claim that drug use shouldn’t be allowed because it contravenes the whole idea of fairly competing in a sporting event fair play in a sporting event.
In this context one can infer that drug use has to be in disagreement with or contrary to fair play in order for them to disagree with their use. The correct answer is A. go against
The remaining answers:
take over: to take over, to deprive
put off: bored / bored. Ex: This song is putting me off
stand for: support, short for