Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the
Correct answer to each of the questions from 24 to 30.
An individual’s personality is the complex of mental characteristics that makes them unique from other people. It includes all of the patterns of thought and emotions that cause us to do and say things in particular ways. At a basic level, personality is expressed through our temperament or emotional tone. However, personality also colours our values, beliefs, and expectations. There are many potential factors that are involved in shaping a personality. These factors are usually seen as coming from heredity and the environment. Research by psychologists over the last several decades has increasingly pointed to hereditary factors being more important, especially for basic personality traits such as emotional tone.
However, the acquisition of values, beliefs, and expectations seem to be due more to socialization and unique experiences, especially during childhood. Some hereditary factors that contribute to personality development do so as a result of interactions with the particular social environment in which people live. For instance, your genetically inherited physical and mental capabilities have an impact on how others see you and, subsequently, how you see yourself. Likewise, your health and physical appearance are likely to be very important in your personality development. You may be frail or robust. You may have a learning disability. These largely hereditary factors are likely to cause you to feel that you are nice – looking, ugly, or just adequate. Likewise, skin colour, gender, and sexual orientation are likely to have a major impact on how you perceive yourself. Whether you are accepted by others as being normal or abnormal can lead you to think and act in a socially acceptable or marginal and even deviant way.
There are many potential environmental influences that help to shape personality. Child rearing practices are especially critical. In the dominant culture of North America, children are usually raised in ways that encourage them to become self-reliant and independent. Children are often allowed to act somewhat like equals to their parents. In contrast, children in China are usually encouraged to think and act as a member of their family and to suppress their own wishes when they are in conflict with the needs of the family. Independence and self-reliance are viewed as an indication of family failure and are discouraged.
(Adapted from: https://www2.palomar.edu/anthKo/social/soc_3.htm)
According to recent studies, what factor is the most important in shaping an individual’s basic personality traits?
A. Transmission of traits from parents to children
B. Very special events or activities that affect him/her
C. Learning to behave in a socially acceptable way
D. The period of a person’s life when they a child
Answer the question before viewing the answer below
Correct answer A