XII. Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct answer to each of the questions
In addition to improved physical health, sport plays a primarily positive role in youth development, including improved academic achievement, higher self- esteem, fewer behavioural problems, and better psychosocial development. Many studies focus on the effects of sport on the five “C’ s” -competence, confidence, connections, character, and caring The many facets of playing sport – the discipline of training, learning teamwork, following the leadership of coaches and captains, learning to lose – provide lifelong skills for athletes.
The literature on youth sport stresses the positive effects of participation in learning the important life skills of goal setting and time management combined with enjoyment; the development of a strong sense of morality; and the development of an appreciation of diversity. Studies have shown that children and youth participating in sport, when compared to peers who do not play sport, exhibit higher grades, expectations, and attainment; greater personal confidence and self-esteem; greater connections with school — that is, greater attachment and support from adults; stronger peer relationships; more academically oriented friends; greater family attachment and more frequent interactions with parents; more restraint in avoiding risky behaviour; and greater involvement in volunteer work.
Sport provides opportunities for children and youth to engage in valuable and positive relationships with adults. Thus, it is a missed opportunity for children who are “gated” – or not included in sport -during early stages of childhood because they are less well behaved than other children. These children are being prevented from participating in the very thing that could help them learn to control and regulate their behaviour. Sport provides an opportunity for children to safely navigate and negotiate between right and wrong as they learn to interact with peers and adults. Research by Taliaferro et al. suggests that playing sport can even protect against suicide risk in youth. Compared to non athletes, male athletes exhibit lower levels of hopelessness and suicidal ideation. Young males involved in multiple sports seem to gamer even more protection in this regard. Similar results were found for girls. Research on the role of exercise in adults confirms that it improves mood and alleviates many forms of depression. Bartko and Eccles found that youth who are highly involved in sport are more “psychologically resilient,” that is, better able to recover from problems. Eccles et al. found that sport participation protects young athletes against social isolation.
What is NOT mentioned as a factor contributing to lifelong skills for athletes?
Leading other people
Learning to obey rules
Learning to accept failure
Working well together as a team
Answer the question before viewing the answer below
Correct answer: A